Whilst `pastclim`

is mostly designed to handle
palaeoclimate time series, it can also be used to manipulate present
reconstructions and future projections. Currently, it covers the
WorldClim and the CHELSA datasets, but it could easily be adapted to use
other sources.

Present-day reconstructions for WorldClim v2.1 are based on the mean
for the period 1970-2000, and are available at multiple resolutions of
10 arc-minutes, 5 arc-minutes, 2.5 arc-minute and 0.5 arc-minutes. The
resolution of interest can be obtained by changing the ending of the
dataset name *WorldClim_2.1_RESm*,
e.g. *WorldClim_2.1_10m* or *WorldClim_2.1_5m*. In
`pastclim`

, the datasets are given a date of 1985 CE (the
mid-point of the period of interest). There are 19 “bioclimatic”
variables, as well as monthly estimates for minimum, mean, and maximum
temperature, and precipitation.

So, the annual variables for the 10m arc-minutes dataset are:

```
library(pastclim)
get_vars_for_dataset("WorldClim_2.1_10m")
#> [1] "bio01" "bio02" "bio03" "bio04" "bio05" "bio06"
#> [7] "bio07" "bio08" "bio09" "bio10" "bio11" "bio12"
#> [13] "bio13" "bio14" "bio15" "bio16" "bio17" "bio18"
#> [19] "bio19" "altitude"
```

And the monthly variables

```
get_vars_for_dataset("WorldClim_2.1_10m", monthly = TRUE, annual = FALSE)
#> [1] "temperature_01" "temperature_02" "temperature_03"
#> [4] "temperature_04" "temperature_05" "temperature_06"
#> [7] "temperature_07" "temperature_08" "temperature_09"
#> [10] "temperature_10" "temperature_11" "temperature_12"
#> [13] "precipitation_01" "precipitation_02" "precipitation_03"
#> [16] "precipitation_04" "precipitation_05" "precipitation_06"
#> [19] "precipitation_07" "precipitation_08" "precipitation_09"
#> [22] "precipitation_10" "precipitation_11" "precipitation_12"
#> [25] "temperature_min_01" "temperature_min_02" "temperature_min_03"
#> [28] "temperature_min_04" "temperature_min_05" "temperature_min_06"
#> [31] "temperature_min_07" "temperature_min_08" "temperature_min_09"
#> [34] "temperature_min_10" "temperature_min_11" "temperature_min_12"
#> [37] "temperature_max_01" "temperature_max_02" "temperature_max_03"
#> [40] "temperature_max_04" "temperature_max_05" "temperature_max_06"
#> [43] "temperature_max_07" "temperature_max_08" "temperature_max_09"
#> [46] "temperature_max_10" "temperature_max_11" "temperature_max_12"
```

We can manipulate data in the usual way. We start by downloading the dataset:

We can then use `region_slice`

to extract the data as a
`SpatRaster`

:

Present-day reconstructions for CHELSA v2.1 are based on the mean for
the period 1981-2000, and are available at the high resolution of 0.5
arc-minutes. *CHELSA_2.1_0.5m*. In `pastclim`

, the
datasets are given a date of 1990 CE (the mid-point of the period of
interest). There are 19 “bioclimatic” variables, as well as monthly
estimates for minimum, mean, and maximum temperature, and
precipitation.

So, the annual variables for the CHELSA dataset are:

```
library(pastclim)
get_vars_for_dataset("CHELSA_2.1_0.5m")
#> [1] "bio01" "bio02" "bio03" "bio04" "bio05" "bio06" "bio07" "bio08" "bio09"
#> [10] "bio10" "bio11" "bio12" "bio13" "bio14" "bio15" "bio16" "bio17" "bio18"
#> [19] "bio19"
```

And the monthly variables

```
get_vars_for_dataset("CHELSA_2.1_0.5m", monthly = TRUE, annual = FALSE)
#> [1] "temperature_01" "temperature_02" "temperature_03"
#> [4] "temperature_04" "temperature_05" "temperature_06"
#> [7] "temperature_07" "temperature_08" "temperature_09"
#> [10] "temperature_10" "temperature_11" "temperature_12"
#> [13] "precipitation_01" "precipitation_02" "precipitation_03"
#> [16] "precipitation_04" "precipitation_05" "precipitation_06"
#> [19] "precipitation_07" "precipitation_08" "precipitation_09"
#> [22] "precipitation_10" "precipitation_11" "precipitation_12"
#> [25] "temperature_max_01" "temperature_max_02" "temperature_max_03"
#> [28] "temperature_max_04" "temperature_max_05" "temperature_max_06"
#> [31] "temperature_max_07" "temperature_max_08" "temperature_max_09"
#> [34] "temperature_max_10" "temperature_max_11" "temperature_max_12"
#> [37] "temperature_min_01" "temperature_min_02" "temperature_min_03"
#> [40] "temperature_min_04" "temperature_min_05" "temperature_min_06"
#> [43] "temperature_min_07" "temperature_min_08" "temperature_min_09"
#> [46] "temperature_min_10" "temperature_min_11" "temperature_min_12"
```

We can manipulate data in the usual way. We start by downloading the dataset:

We can then use `region_slice`

to extract the data as a
`SpatRaster`

:

```
climate_present <- region_slice(
time_ce = 1990,
bio_variables = c("bio01", "bio02"),
dataset = "CHELSA_2.1_0.5m"
)
```

The datasets for each variable are very large due to the high
resolution. Besides downloading the data, it is also possible to use a
virtual raster, leaving the files on the server, and only downloading
the pixels that are needed. We can achieve that by using the dataset
*CHELSA_2.1_0.5_vsi*.

We still need to download the dataset first, but rather than downloading all the files, this sets up the virtual raster (and so it is very fast!):

Once downloaded, we can use it as any other dataset:

```
climate_present <- region_slice(
time_ce = 1990,
bio_variables = c("bio12","temperature_01"),
dataset = "CHELSA_2.1_0.5m_vsi"
)
```

This is ideal if you just need to extract climate for a number of locations, and do not need to get the full map.

Future projections are based on the models in CMIP6, downscaled and
de-biased using WorldClim 2.1 for the present as a baseline. Monthly
values of minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation,
as well as 19 bioclimatic variables were processed for 23 global climate
models (GCMs), and for four Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs): 126,
245, 370 and 585. Model and SSP can be chosen by changing the ending of
the dataset name *WorldClim_2.1_GCM_SSP_RESm*.

A complete list of available combinations can be obtained with:

```
list_available_datasets()[grepl("WorldClim_2.1",list_available_datasets())]
#> [1] "WorldClim_2.1_0.5m"
#> [2] "WorldClim_2.1_10m"
#> [3] "WorldClim_2.1_2.5m"
#> [4] "WorldClim_2.1_5m"
#> [5] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [6] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp126_10m"
#> [7] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [8] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp126_5m"
#> [9] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [10] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp245_10m"
#> [11] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [12] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp245_5m"
#> [13] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [14] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp370_10m"
#> [15] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [16] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp370_5m"
#> [17] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [18] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp585_10m"
#> [19] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [20] "WorldClim_2.1_ACCESS-CM2_ssp585_5m"
#> [21] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [22] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp126_10m"
#> [23] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [24] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp126_5m"
#> [25] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [26] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp245_10m"
#> [27] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [28] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp245_5m"
#> [29] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [30] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp370_10m"
#> [31] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [32] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp370_5m"
#> [33] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [34] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp585_10m"
#> [35] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [36] "WorldClim_2.1_BCC-CSM2-MR_ssp585_5m"
#> [37] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [38] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp126_10m"
#> [39] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [40] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp126_5m"
#> [41] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [42] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp245_10m"
#> [43] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [44] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp245_5m"
#> [45] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [46] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp370_10m"
#> [47] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [48] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp370_5m"
#> [49] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [50] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp585_10m"
#> [51] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [52] "WorldClim_2.1_CMCC-ESM2_ssp585_5m"
#> [53] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [54] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp126_10m"
#> [55] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [56] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp126_5m"
#> [57] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [58] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp245_10m"
#> [59] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [60] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp245_5m"
#> [61] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [62] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp370_10m"
#> [63] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [64] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp370_5m"
#> [65] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [66] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp585_10m"
#> [67] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [68] "WorldClim_2.1_EC-Earth3-Veg_ssp585_5m"
#> [69] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [70] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp126_10m"
#> [71] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [72] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp126_5m"
#> [73] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [74] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp245_10m"
#> [75] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [76] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp245_5m"
#> [77] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [78] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp585_10m"
#> [79] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [80] "WorldClim_2.1_FIO-ESM-2-0_ssp585_5m"
#> [81] "WorldClim_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [82] "WorldClim_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp126_10m"
#> [83] "WorldClim_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [84] "WorldClim_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp126_5m"
#> [85] "WorldClim_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [86] "WorldClim_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp370_10m"
#> [87] "WorldClim_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [88] "WorldClim_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp370_5m"
#> [89] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [90] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp126_10m"
#> [91] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [92] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp126_5m"
#> [93] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [94] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp245_10m"
#> [95] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [96] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp245_5m"
#> [97] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [98] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp370_10m"
#> [99] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [100] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp370_5m"
#> [101] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [102] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp585_10m"
#> [103] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [104] "WorldClim_2.1_GISS-E2-1-G_ssp585_5m"
#> [105] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [106] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp126_10m"
#> [107] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [108] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp126_5m"
#> [109] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [110] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_10m"
#> [111] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [112] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_5m"
#> [113] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [114] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp585_10m"
#> [115] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [116] "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp585_5m"
#> [117] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [118] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp126_10m"
#> [119] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [120] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp126_5m"
#> [121] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [122] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp245_10m"
#> [123] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [124] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp245_5m"
#> [125] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [126] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp370_10m"
#> [127] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [128] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp370_5m"
#> [129] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [130] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp585_10m"
#> [131] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [132] "WorldClim_2.1_INM-CM5-0_ssp585_5m"
#> [133] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [134] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp126_10m"
#> [135] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [136] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp126_5m"
#> [137] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [138] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp245_10m"
#> [139] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [140] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp245_5m"
#> [141] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [142] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp370_10m"
#> [143] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [144] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp370_5m"
#> [145] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [146] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp585_10m"
#> [147] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [148] "WorldClim_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp585_5m"
#> [149] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [150] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp126_10m"
#> [151] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [152] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp126_5m"
#> [153] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [154] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp245_10m"
#> [155] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [156] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp245_5m"
#> [157] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [158] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp370_10m"
#> [159] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [160] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp370_5m"
#> [161] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [162] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp585_10m"
#> [163] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [164] "WorldClim_2.1_MIROC6_ssp585_5m"
#> [165] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [166] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp126_10m"
#> [167] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [168] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp126_5m"
#> [169] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [170] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp245_10m"
#> [171] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [172] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp245_5m"
#> [173] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [174] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp370_10m"
#> [175] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [176] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp370_5m"
#> [177] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [178] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp585_10m"
#> [179] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [180] "WorldClim_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp585_5m"
#> [181] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [182] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp126_10m"
#> [183] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [184] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp126_5m"
#> [185] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [186] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp245_10m"
#> [187] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [188] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp245_5m"
#> [189] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [190] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp370_10m"
#> [191] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [192] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp370_5m"
#> [193] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [194] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp585_10m"
#> [195] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [196] "WorldClim_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp585_5m"
#> [197] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [198] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp126_10m"
#> [199] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp126_2.5m"
#> [200] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp126_5m"
#> [201] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp245_0.5m"
#> [202] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp245_10m"
#> [203] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp245_2.5m"
#> [204] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp245_5m"
#> [205] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [206] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp370_10m"
#> [207] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp370_2.5m"
#> [208] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp370_5m"
#> [209] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [210] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_10m"
#> [211] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_2.5m"
#> [212] "WorldClim_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_5m"
```

So, if we are interested in the the HadGEM3-GC31-LL model, with ssp set to 245 and at 10 arc-minutes, we can get the available variables:

```
get_vars_for_dataset(dataset = "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_10m")
#> [1] "bio01" "bio02" "bio03" "bio04" "bio05" "bio06" "bio07" "bio08" "bio09"
#> [10] "bio10" "bio11" "bio12" "bio13" "bio14" "bio15" "bio16" "bio17" "bio18"
#> [19] "bio19"
```

We can now download “bio01” and “bio02” for that dataset with:

```
download_dataset(
dataset = "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_10m",
bio_variables = c("bio01", "bio02")
)
```

The datasets are averages over 20 year periods (2021-2040, 2041-2060,
2061-2080, 2081-2100). In `pastclim`

, the midpoints of the
periods (2030, 2050, 2070, 2090) are used as the time stamps. All 4
periods are automatically downloaded for each combination of GCM model
and SSP, and can be selected as usual by defining the time in
`region_slice`

.

```
future_slice <- region_slice(
time_ce = 2030,
dataset = "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_10m",
bio_variables = c("bio01", "bio02")
)
```

Alternatively, it is possible to get the full time series of 4 slices with:

```
future_series <- region_series(
dataset = "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_10m",
bio_variables = c("bio01", "bio02")
)
```

It is possible to simply use
`get_time_ce_steps(dataset = "WorldClim_2.1_HadGEM3-GC31-LL_ssp245_10m")`

to get the available time points for that dataset.

Help for the WorldClim datasets (modern and future) can be accessed
with `help("WorldClim_2.1")`

Future projections are based on the models in CMIP6, downscaled and
de-biased using CHELSA 2.1 for the present as a baseline. Monthly values
of mean temperature, and precipitation, as well as 19 bioclimatic
variables were processed for 5 global climate models (GCMs), and for
three Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs): 126, 370 and 585. Model and
SSP can be chosen by changing the ending of the dataset name
*CHELSA_2.1_GCM_SSP_0.5m*.

A complete list of available combinations can be obtained with:

```
list_available_datasets()[grepl("CHELSA_2.1",list_available_datasets())]
#> [1] "CHELSA_2.1_0.5m"
#> [2] "CHELSA_2.1_0.5m_vsi"
#> [3] "CHELSA_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [4] "CHELSA_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp126_0.5m_vsi"
#> [5] "CHELSA_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [6] "CHELSA_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp370_0.5m_vsi"
#> [7] "CHELSA_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [8] "CHELSA_2.1_GFDL-ESM4_ssp585_0.5m_vsi"
#> [9] "CHELSA_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [10] "CHELSA_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp126_0.5m_vsi"
#> [11] "CHELSA_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [12] "CHELSA_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp370_0.5m_vsi"
#> [13] "CHELSA_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [14] "CHELSA_2.1_IPSL-CM6A-LR_ssp585_0.5m_vsi"
#> [15] "CHELSA_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [16] "CHELSA_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp126_0.5m_vsi"
#> [17] "CHELSA_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [18] "CHELSA_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp370_0.5m_vsi"
#> [19] "CHELSA_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [20] "CHELSA_2.1_MPI-ESM1-2-HR_ssp585_0.5m_vsi"
#> [21] "CHELSA_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [22] "CHELSA_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp126_0.5m_vsi"
#> [23] "CHELSA_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [24] "CHELSA_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp370_0.5m_vsi"
#> [25] "CHELSA_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [26] "CHELSA_2.1_MRI-ESM2-0_ssp585_0.5m_vsi"
#> [27] "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp126_0.5m"
#> [28] "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp126_0.5m_vsi"
#> [29] "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp370_0.5m"
#> [30] "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp370_0.5m_vsi"
#> [31] "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_0.5m"
#> [32] "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_0.5m_vsi"
```

Note that there is a virtual option for each dataset. So, if we are interested in the the GFDL-ESM4 model, with ssp set to 126 , we can get the available variables:

```
get_vars_for_dataset(dataset = "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_0.5m", monthly=TRUE)
#> [1] "bio01" "bio02" "bio03" "bio04"
#> [5] "bio05" "bio06" "bio07" "bio08"
#> [9] "bio09" "bio10" "bio11" "bio12"
#> [13] "bio13" "bio14" "bio15" "bio16"
#> [17] "bio17" "bio18" "bio19" "temperature_01"
#> [21] "temperature_02" "temperature_03" "temperature_04" "temperature_05"
#> [25] "temperature_06" "temperature_07" "temperature_08" "temperature_09"
#> [29] "temperature_10" "temperature_11" "temperature_12" "precipitation_01"
#> [33] "precipitation_02" "precipitation_03" "precipitation_04" "precipitation_05"
#> [37] "precipitation_06" "precipitation_07" "precipitation_08" "precipitation_09"
#> [41] "precipitation_10" "precipitation_11" "precipitation_12"
```

We can now download “bio01” and “bio02” for that dataset, using the virtual version, with:

```
download_dataset(
dataset = "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_0.5m_vsi",
bio_variables = c("bio01", "bio02")
)
```

The datasets are averages over 30 year periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070,
2071-2100). In `pastclim`

, the midpoints of the periods
(2025, 2055, 2075) are used as the time stamps. All 3 periods are
automatically downloaded for a given combination of GCM model and SSP,
and can be selected as usual by defining the time in
`region_slice`

.

```
future_slice <- region_slice(
time_ce = 2025,
dataset = "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_0.5m_vsi",
bio_variables = c("bio01", "bio02")
)
```

Alternatively, it is possible to get the full time series of 4 slices with:

```
future_series <- region_series(
dataset = "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_0.5m_vsi",
bio_variables = c("bio01", "bio02")
)
```

It is possible to simply use
`get_time_ce_steps(dataset = "CHELSA_2.1_UKESM1-0-LL_ssp585_0.5m_vsi")`

to get the available time points for that dataset.

Help for the WorldClim datasets (modern and future) can be accessed
with `help("CHELSA_2.1")`