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This package implements Chang and Goplerud (2023)’s generalization of Kernel Regularized Least Squares (gKRLS), also known as kernel ridge regression. This reformulates [g]KRLS as a hierarchical model. Estimation proceeds using mgcv and associated functions such as gam, bam, or gamm4. Thus, one can use gKRLS for any outcome implemented in mgcv as well as including multiple smooth terms, non-penalized covariates, etc. We also provide an implementation of random sketching following Yang et al. (2017).

The package can be installed from CRAN or the most-to-update version can be installed using devtools.

# Up-to-Date GitHub Version
remotes::install_github("mgoplerud/gKRLS", dependencies = TRUE)

The syntax is straightforward to users of mgcv. The following example estimates a Poisson regression with an intercept and a flexible kernel term.

gam(y ~ s(x1, x2, bs = "gKRLS"), data = data, family = poisson())

gKRLS by default uses subsampling sketching (i.e., building the kernel based on a random sample of observations) where the dimensionality of the sketched kernel is 5 * ceiling(N^(1/3)). Using xt = gKRLS(...) can modify the type of sketching. Please see the documentation for details.

Functions are also available to implement gKRLS in an ensemble using SuperLearner and in double/debiased machine learning using DoubleML. It also allows sandwich to calculate robust or clustered standard errors for standard families when using gam or bam; see Chang and Goplerud (2023) for more details.

calculate_effects can compute average marginal effects and predicted values. The examples for calculate_effects show how to calculate quantities such as predicted probability curves.